Novel HIV vaccine trial imminent

South Africa is about to become the epicentre of HIV vaccine research with the start of a trial that will inject people with powerful antibodies already proven to neutralise most strains of the virus.

The vaccine will inject people with “broadly neutralising antibodies” (bNA) that have been isolated by the US National Institutes of Health, based on decades of research on HIV-infected people who have been able to hold the virus is check.

The vaccine will inject people with “broadly neutralising antibodies” (bNA) that have been isolated by the US National Institutes of Health, based on decades of research on HIV-infected people who have been able to hold the virus is check.

An AIDS vaccine trial that will infuse people with antibodies known to neutralise 85 percent of HIV strains will begin in southern Africa, the USA and South America within months.

“We are entering the most exciting period, an golden era of HIV prevention research that has taken us 30 years to get to,” said SA Medical Research Council President Dr Glenda Gray, announcing the trial.

The vaccine will inject people with “broadly neutralising antibodies” (bNA) that have been isolated by the US National Institutes of Health, based on decades of research on HIV-infected people who have been able to hold the virus is check.

As HIV mutates so fast, scientists have pinned their hopes on bNAs that are able to neutralise a large number of strains at a time, rather than one or two strains.

“Most vaccines try to educate the body to produce an immune response (and develop antibodies], but in this trial you will be given the neutralising antibodies right away,” said Dr Larry Corey of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN).

The vaccine will be tested on gay men in the USA and South America from November, and women in sub-Saharan Africa from January.

Trial participants will get an initial vaccine, then a vaccine boost after 12 months to see whether this can maintain the body’s immune response

At least seven South African trial sites will be involved, and HIV negative women aged between 18 and 30 will be recruited.

The trial participants – about 3 900 globally – will each get a half-hour intravenous infusion via a drip with the special antibodies every two months for 20 months.

“We are very optimistic. These neutralising antibodies have been able to prevent the infection of almost every virus. But we have learnt never to underestimate your pathogen,” Corey told Health-e News.

The trial will be the main topic of discussion at the HVTN full group meeting that begins in Cape Town today.

Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania are also involved in the trial, which Corey described as a “large world-wide collaboration”.

“It takes a world to develop an HIV vaccine,” quipped Gray, who added that she felt “very excited” about the prospects after years of setbacks. Results will become available in late 2018.

Alongside the neutralising antibody trial, South Africans are currently testing another  vaccine that aims to stimulate the body to fight HIV.

This trial is a continuation of the 2009 Thailand trial (called RV144), the only vaccine ever to have elicited any immune response in trialists. After a year, it had protected 60 percent of those involved against HIV but the protective effect had halved by 3,5 years.

The Thai vaccine has been re-engineered to use the type of HIV most common in southern Africa (Clade C), and this has been tested on South Africans. A large-scale trial of the vaccine is due to start next year. Trial participants will get an initial vaccine, then a vaccine boost after 12 months to see whether this can maintain the body’s immune response.

“It might mean that people need to get a yearly booster shot,” said Gray, adding that the efficacy of the measles vaccine also waned over time.

“South Africa is the centre of gravity as far as HIV prevention work is concerned,” added Correy. “The Thai vaccine has been partly effective in stimulating the body’s CD4 T cells to fight against HIV, while the second is using the latest research on broadly neutralising antibodies. We are bringing both of these approaches to South Africa, which will make South Africa the epicentre of HIV vaccine development. ” – Health-e News.

An edited version of this story also appeared in The Star and Daily News newspapers

Print Friendly
Subscribe

Comments are closed.

Subscribe to our weekly newsletter

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

Contact us

  • PLEASE NOTE: Health-e News is a news service. We are therefore only able to respond to e-mails concerning specific stories or television programmes that we have published or broadcasted. These related comments or suggestions can been addressed to the editor or the relevant journalists. | We are unable to respond to e-mails of a medical nature or queries unrelated to our specific work. Please refer to our resource section for further information.

    Cape Town

    22 Draper Square, Draper Street, Claremont, Cape Town | View on Google Maps | P O Box 23482, Claremont, 7735 | 021 683 8099 | Fax: 021 683 8144

    Johannesburg

    2nd Floor North Tower, 160 Jan Smuts Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg | View on Google Maps | PO Box 52428, Saxonwold 2132 | 011 880 0995

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.