A new study confirms smokers are at higher risk of oral HPV infection, which causes throat cancer.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is usually associated with cervical cancer but it can cause many other types of cancer including throat cancer from oral infection.
The study, conducted in the United Kingdom (UK), found 2.2 percent of the 700 men and women investigated tested positive for oral HPV.
However, the rate amongst former smokers was over three percent Amongst those who had never smoked, the rate dropped to only one percent.
HPV most common STI
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and one if four people are infected in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Over 100 strains of the virus exist but most people’s immune systems clear the infection naturally. In some people this infection persists and can cause cancers including those of the cervix, vagina, penis and throat. Unlike other STIs, HPV can be transmitted despite condom use because it is frequently carried on areas not covered by condoms.
According to the researchers, not only are smokers more likely to be infected but they are also more likely to have persistent HPV infections, increasing the chances of developing cancer.
The risk for infection also increased in people who had a higher number of sexual partners (more than six).
Dr Vanessa Hearnden from the University of Sheffield said these results show the need “for individuals to be aware of lifestyle risk factors such as number of sexual partners and tobacco use”.
HPV vaccine for boys
Last month the UK government announced that it would be rolling out HPV vaccination for boys. Up until recently, only girls had been covered for vaccination as is the case in South Africa.
“Many people associate the HPV virus with cervical cancer but there is less recognition of the fact that HPV causes oropharyngeal cancer, and unfortunately, the prevalence of this cancer has increased dramatically over the past few years,” said Dr Craig Murdoch, also from the University of Sheffield, in a statement.
In 2014, the South African government became the first in Africa to roll out the HPV vaccine to girls aged between nine and 14 but is yet to extend this to boys based on cost. – Health-e News
An edited version of this story was published by Health24.com